how-to articles Archives

forklift overhead guards

Forklift overhead guards – order online

Forklift overhead guards are very important safety devices which are used on every forklift.  When damaged, they need to be replaced.  Intella Liftparts offers competitive pricing on new and used forklift overhead guards.  We can offer new overhead guards at competitive prices AND we can provide used overhead guards.

forklift overhead guard used

 

Used forklift overhead guards come from forklifts which are retired and being “scrapped” for parts.  Often these forklifts will be too costly to maintain but the overhead guard still will be in good condition.  Do you need to obtain a price on a used forklift overhead guard?  Please provide the make, model, and serial number from your forklift.  That information can be found on the forklift data tag.   Once you have that information, please call us at 616-796-1288 or email us with the information.

 

 

 

OSHA has a number of rules on forklift overhead guards which can be found here.  The short answer is that OSHA requires overhead guards on forklifts and it’s not acceptable to remove the overhead guard permanently.  The general rule of thumb for OSHA requirements on safety items on forklifts is this:  if the safety device was included on the forklift when it was originally manufactured, that safety device needs to stay on the forklift and shouldn’t be removed.

 

Need any of these overhead guards?  We can help.  Used overhead guards are priced on an as-needed basis, availability often changes quickly.  Hyster 1599204, Hyster 1599205, Hyster 1599203, Toyota 51601-U2162-71, Yale 550046736.

 

Below is a photo of a used overhead guard we recently sold.  As you can see, there’s a bit of rust on the top but it’s still perfectly suitable.  The price of this OHG new was over $4000!  This used forklift overhead guard sold for around half–$2200.00

forklift overhead guard
Example of a used overhead guard sold by Intella

 

Common questions about forklift overhead guards:

Question: Can I replace my forklift overhead guard with any forklift overhead guard?  Are they universal?

Answer:  No.  Each forklift overhead guard is custom designed to the make and model of each particular forklift.

 

Question:  Can I replace only certain components of the overhead guard?  For example, I just want to replace one leg of the overhead guard.

Answer:  Usually no, unless the manufacturer designed it that way.  A few manufacturers design their forklift overhead guards to bolt together: the four legs are bolted to a top ‘ceiling’ frame.  It’s a great design because it’s simple to replace one leg in the future but unfortunately most forklift manufacturers built their overhead guards as one welded piece and you have to replace the entire overhead guard.

 

Question:  are aftermarket forklift overhead guards available?

Answer:  We offer a few aftermarket forklift overhead guards.  They are rare and if you are looking to save money on a replacement overhead guard, a used overhead guard is often the best option.

 

Question:  How much do forklift overhead guards cost?

Answer:  New forklift overhead guards range from around $1200 – $3000, depending on the size of the forklift and the brand of the forklift.  Used forklift overhead guard prices depend on availability, age, and brand of the forklift but they are typically half or two-thirds the price of new.  Contact us at 616-796-1288 and we can help with your forklift overhead guard problem!

 


Post by Intella Liftparts

Forklift Battery Troubleshooting

Forklift Battery Troubleshooting: If only they could last forever.

Chances are your battery is going to give you problems at some point in time. When those problems arise, we want to you to be prepared which is why we made this forklift battery troubleshooting guide. Below is a list of common problems associated with forklift batteries that occur over time. Listed are the different battery troubles, the conditions what come with them, what’s causing the problem, and how to collectively act upon it.

 

forklift battery troubleshooting intella liftparts

Short Circuited

Condition:

  • Very low cell voltage and specific gravity during recharging and discharging
  • Low gassing while charging
  • Extreme rise of electrolyte temperature during charging phase
  • Fast drop of gravity after charging

 

Why is this happening? Probable cause:

  • Short circuited due to a dropping of active materials
  • Short circuited due to a broken separator
  • Short circuited due to advancing of broken pieces during manufacturing of battery

 

Where to go from here:

  • Replace the faulty cell with a single charged cell

 

 

Sulfation

Condition:

  • While charging, the voltage and electrolyte temperature are much higher than the standard
  • Gassing is accelerated from charging and the gravity does not rise to normal
  • Voltage drops quickly while discharging
  • In some extreme cases, plates may become whitened

 

Why is this happening? Probable cause:

  • Repeatedly overcharging and discharging of battery
  • Plates exposed to open air for extended period of time
  • Lack of care during storage process
  • Excessively high gravity while using battery
  • Impurities causing excessive self discharge of battery

 

Where to go from here:

  • If the battery is in rather early conditions, remove the probable cause
  • Replace the faulty cell with a single charged cell if damage can’t be fixed

 

 

Excessive Self Discharging

Condition:

  • Quick drop in gravity after charging
  • Charging capacity of battery significantly reduced

 

Why is this happening? Probable cause:

  • Using impure water in the battery
  • Specific gravity higher than it should be
  • Excessively high temperature of electrolytes
  • Battery container has been insufficiently cleaned

 

Where to go from here:

  • Take daily care of the battery
  • Replace the faulty cell with a single charged cell

 

 

Exchange of Polarity

Condition:

  • Polarity switched around in some cells during discharging or high temperature of electrolytes
  • Electrolytes dissolve causing an emission of gas that changes the polarity of the battery

 

Why is this happening? Probable cause:

  • Caused by quick discharge without noticing a low capacity in a cell
  • Ill preparation of certain means like an equation charge

 

Where to go from here:

  • Replace faulty cell
  • Take daily care of the battery

 

Forklift Battery Troubleshooting Intella Liftparts

Other Possible Factors

1. Color of electrolyte has changed to brown

– Due to corrosion of positive plate mixing into electrolytes

– Check voltage and gravity of battery

– Replace electrolyte

 

2. Chlorine smell during charging

– Due to sea water mixing into electrolytes

– Replace electrolyte and charge the battery until the smell is gone

– Replace cells

 

3. Electrolyte excessively reduced

– Battery cells are cracked

– High electrolyte temperature while charging

– Find causes and follow repair procedures

 

4. Unnaturally high electrolyte temperature

– Due to lack of electrolytes

– Due to shorted cells and/or reversed polarity

– Solder battery

 

5. Heat from connector portion

– Bad connector contact

 

Forklift Battery Troubleshooting Intella Liftparts

 


 

 

Need forklift parts?  With thousands of parts in stock, quick shipping and great customer service, Intella Liftparts can help. You can also check out our YouTube channel here for how-to videos, product overviews, and other great clips.

Post by Intella Liftparts

How to Fix a Forklift

You’ve probably been there before. You discover a problem with your forklift, find the right solution, buy the necessary parts, and then have to call in help to do the rest. But at Intella Liftparts, our goal is your independence: we’ve helped you with the parts, now let us help with everything else. With that said, check out this list of our ‘how to fix a forklift’ articles for repairs of all kinds. Our work focuses on the most common problems that forklifts can have, ensuring that help for you is as available as possible. Beyond repair tips, we also make it our goal to cover every other aspect of owning a forklift, from proper maintenance to safety training to varieties of forklift tires. Here at Intella, we strive to keep you up to date with the most current information we can provide about your vehicle. You know us as a parts service; now get to know us as so much more. Below you will find links to some of our popular ‘how to fix a forklift’ articles. Clicking on the title will take you right to the article page. You can also click here for a full list of articles on our website.

how to fix a forklift intella liftparts

How to identify and replace electrical contactors

How to select the best battery for your forklift

How to block your forklift prior to performing repairs

How to buy a new forklift

How to troubleshoot a no-start condition

How to maintain your forklift engine (internal combustion and electric)

How to replace a blown fuse

How to pick the right tires for your forklift

How to select a forklift battery charger

How to find the serial number on you forklift

How to avoid common forklift hazards

For more how-to articles and all around product knowledge, click here

how to fix a forklift intella liftpartsOh and if you want to prove to everyone that you’re

the boss, we’ve got just the right t-shirt for you.

 

 how to fix a forklift

 


Need forklift parts?  Need a Toyota forklift seat?  With thousands of parts in stock, quick shipping and great customer service, Intella Liftparts can help. You can also check out our YouTube channel here for how-to videos, product overviews, and other great clips.


Post by Intella Liftparts

How to Clear Nissan Forklift Codes

Nissan forklift codes – Note: This page is for forklifts using either K21 or K25 engines.

Q: How do I clear my Nissan forklift codes?

A: Clearing codes on a Nissan forklift can be a very intricate process for the user. It may be helpful to use a stopwatch during the process, as many steps require an accurate reading of time. It is also advised to read through the various procedures at least once as trying to wing it and perform the steps as you go may leave you lost due to the blinking lights and time constraints.

 

Nissan forklift codes intella liftparts

Having trouble with error codes from another brand? Check out these other helpful links:

 


 

1. Turn the forklift key switch on while simultaneously starting the stopwatch.

 

2. Wait for 3 seconds, then proceed to press the forklift accelerator 5 times within 5 seconds. If it takes longer than 5 seconds to press the accelerator down 5 times, there is a chance you may forgo clearing the Nissan forklift codes.

 

3. Wait for another 7 seconds, then press and hold the forklift accelerator for 10 to 12 seconds until the Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) begins to blink. You are now in Diagnostic Mode. If the MIL does not begin blinking, repeat steps 1 through 5.

 

Once the MIL starts flashing, you can start reading your Nissan forklift codes.  The MIL will display 10 slow flashes; the forklift error code(s) will then follow.

 

Example: 1 flash (hesitation) 1 flash (hesitation) 8 flashes. This would indicate code P0118.

Example: 2 flashes (hesitation) 2 flashes (hesitation) 3 flashes. This would indicate code P0223.

 

After hesitation, another code may follow. If the MIL makes 10 quick flashes, pauses and gives another 10 quick flashes again 3 consecutive times, this would mean there are no codes stored in the ECM. After 10 slow flashes, the cycle is repeated.

 

nissan forklift codes intella liftparts

 

To erase your Nissan forklift codes, the repairs must first be made. Following the necessary repairs, return to Diagnostic Mode.  Hold the accelerator down for a minimum of 10 seconds, then release the accelerator and the Nissan forklift codes should be erased.

 

*If the accelerator pedal assembly has ever been replaced or disconnected on the lift truck, accelerator released position learning must be performed.  This can be done in a few brisk steps. 1. Turn the ignition switch on and waiting for at least 2 seconds. 2. Turn ignition switch off and wait at least 10 seconds. 3. Turn ignition switch back on again and wait at least 2 seconds.

-Learning Completed-

 

Congratulations! You fixed the forklift.

 


 

Nissan Forklift Diagnostic Codes and Explanations 

If you were wondering what those coded numbers mean, don’t fret we’ve got you covered!

 

nissan forklift codes intella liftparts

P0031 – O2 heater low in put (breakage of wire)

P0032 – O2 heater high in put (electrical shortage)

P0102 – Airflow meter low in put (breakage of wire)

P0103 – Airflow meter high in put (electrical shortage)

P0117 – Water temperature sensor low in put (breakage of wire)

P0118 – Water temperature sensor high in put (electrical shortage)

P0122 – Throttle position sensor 2 low in put failure

P0123 – Throttle position sensor 2 high in put failure

P0132 – Front O2 sensor abnormal voltage (bank 1)

P0134 – Front O2 sensor breaking of wire (bank 1)

P0222 – Throttle position sensor 1 low in put failure

P0223 – Throttle position sensor 1 high in put failure

P0335 – Crank angle POS sensor break wire during start

Crank angle POS sensor break wire after start

Crank angle POS sensor momentary break

P0340 – Camshaft angle phase sensor break wire during start

Camshaft angle phase sensor break wire after start

Camshaft angle phase sensor momentary break

P0340 – Crankshaft position sensor

Crankshaft magnetic phase signal failure

P0350 – Ignition primary signal failure

P0500 – Vehicle speed sensor failure

P0605 – Change in ECM assembly needed

P0650 – Warning light diagnosis (valve wiring)

Warning light diagnosis (circuit line)

P1065 – Backup RAM system diagnosis (main)

P1121 – Return spring diagnosis

Default mechanism diagnosis (slightly open fixed angle)

Throttle open and fixed diagnosis

P1122 – Throttle F/B control monitoring diagnosis

Throttle servo error diagnosis

P1124 – Throttle motor power source short

P1126 – Throttle motor power source break

P1128 – Throttle motor short

P1129 – AVCC wiring short

P1217 – Overheat

P1218 – Overheat step #1

P1225 – TPS fully close study data down

P1226 – TPS fully close study data unusually renewal

P1240 – LPG fuel injector 1 damage (injection zone)

P1241 – LPG fuel injector 1 damage (not injection zone)

P1242 – LPG fuel injector 2 damage (injection zone)

P1243 – LPG fuel injector 2 damage (not injection zone)

P1245 – LPG fuel pressure sensor failure (electrical shortage)

P1249 – LPG extra high fuel pressure detected / pressure failure

P1805 – Brake switch OFF failure

P1810 – Lift height low switch OFF (high position ON)

P1811 – Lift height high switch OFF (low position ON)

P2122 – APS1 low in put failure

P2123 – APS1 high in put failure

P2127 – APS2 low in put failure

P2128 – APS2 high in put failure

P2135 – TPS 1 and/or 2 miss-matching failure

P2138 – TPS 1 and/or 2 miss-matching failure

U1001 – CAN non-emission related communication system failure (breaking of wire, circuit failure)

 


 

Working on a Nissan forklift? If you need parts, Intella can help.  We have thousands of parts available at great prices and would be happy to help you find what you’re looking for.  Click here for more information!

 

Also you can check out Intella’s YouTube channel for how-to videos and product demos.

 

 


Post by Intella Liftparts

FORKLIFT BATTERY MAINTENANCE

Forklift Battery Maintenance

Forklifts may use several different types of batteries. Electric forklifts require the battery to operate, while gas powered forklifts need a battery to start. Over time, these batteries will run down. Electric forklifts will need to be charged periodically, while other types of forklifts will need the battery completely replaced when it runs down. Replacing these batteries is done in much the same manner as a battery on an automobile, so we will focus more on maintaining batteries in electric forklifts.

 

 

What Makes Up the Battery?

An electric forklift battery is made up of five different parts. Those who work on an electrical forklift should know these parts to avoid getting shocked or, worse, causing the battery to explode.

 

  1. 1.  The battery cells – the battery is divided into different cells, each of which contains a set of positive and negative plates. The plate at each end of the cell is negatively charged, and plates alternate throughout the cell. The number of cells determines how many volts the battery produces.
  2. 2.  Separators – each of the positive and negative plates is separated by a separator, which provides the insulation.
  3. 3.  The battery tray – this is the container that holds the battery cells. It’s usually made from steel.
  4. 4.  Electrolyte solution – everything inside each cell is submerged in an electrolyte solution made of sulfuric acid.
  5. 5.  Element – the top of each cell features an element made up of one positive and one negative terminal. The positive plates are all connected to the positive terminal, while the negative plates connect to the negative terminal.

 

Forklift Battery Maintenance

 

 

How Can you Select the Best Battery for your Forklift?

One factor in deciding on the best battery for your forklift is to look at its size. Larger forklifts that are rated for lifting larger loads are going to need bigger batteries because they will require more power. Smaller forklifts won’t have as much weight to move because the frames are usually lighter, plus they’re not rated for lifting really heavy loads. Another very important factor when selecting proper battery size for your forklift is weight. In an effort to save money, it may be tempting to purchase a smaller battery. Minimum battery weight is listed on the data tag located on your forklift. It is very important to fit a battery that meets these weight requirements. The battery is factored into the counterweight and crucial to the lifting capacity and safety of the forklift. Make certain you get the correct size battery for your forklift.

 

Before purchasing a new battery it would be wise to have the battery inspected by a battery technician. Often these batteries can be repaired. It may be a matter of replacing a cell or two. It may just need an acid adjustment. These remedies to not make your battery new again but can in some cases extend the life by a few years.

 

Be careful when buying off-brand batteries. Yes, they may work in your forklift, but they may also be cheaper for a reason—many off-brand batteries are of a lesser quality and will not last as long as the more expensive brand names. Look for product reviews before you make a purchase.

forklift battery

 

Tips on Charging the Battery

Maintaining a proper charge on your forklift battery is important. If the battery isn’t properly charged, it will run down much more quickly, and then you’ll end up spending more money on replacement batteries than you should. Here are a few quick tips on charging your batteries to make certain you get the most out of them.

 

 

  • •  Recharge your battery when it has about 20 percent power left, not before. Recharging a battery when it has more power may damage the battery and shorten its life.
  • •  You don’t have to charge a battery daily—if it’s not run down, don’t charge it. Most forklift batteries are designed for a certain number of charge cycles (1,500 or more). If the battery doesn’t need to be charged, don’t waste one of these cycles.
  • •  To make sure the battery is performing at its best, use the equalize, weekend, or weekly charge setting (the term varies from brand to brand) once every five to ten recharge cycles. This will help ensure longer battery life. However, don’t use this setting too often or you may damage the battery. You may want to keep a log of when these special charge cycles are done to help with this.
  • •  You’ll also want to keep a log of when water was added to the battery. New batteries will need water added to them once every ten charges for the first couple of years in use. After that, or if you’re using a reconditioned battery, you may need to add water to it after every five charges.
  • •  Add water after the charging cycle, never at the beginning of a cycle.
  • •  Don’t interrupt a charge cycle. Doing so will waste one of your charge cycles, plus it can damage the battery.
  • •  If a battery does run completely down, be sure to recharge it as soon as possible. Don’t let it sit for a long period of time.

 

Steps on Replacing the Battery

On average, a battery for an electric forklift will last around five years, less if it’s used and recharged a lot. Under ideal conditions a well maintained low usage battery can last as long as 10-12 years. Fortunately, these batteries are fairly easy to find, and most are reasonably priced.

There are a number of signs that your forklift battery is about to expire. Here are a few of the most common:

 

  • •  It doesn’t hold a charge for long
  • •  It needs recharged several times during the day
  • •  The battery case starts to show corrosion buildup
  • •  The battery begins to smell
  • •  The battery begins to smoke while in use or when charging—replace this battery immediately!

 

Replacing a forklift battery is not as simple as replacing other batteries. The first issue is that the battery can weigh several thousand pounds. It’s going to take another forklift to move it. It can also be very dangerous as batteries carry high amperage that can be deadly if not handled correctly. In many cases, it’s easiest to simply have a battery technician do the installation. These professionals have been trained in forklift battery replacement and can handle everything.

However, if you’re going to do the replacement yourself, you should first make certain that you keep the top of the battery clear of all metal objects. Otherwise, the battery could short circuit and explode. You should remove any jewelry you’re wearing such as a wedding ring—even that small bit of metal can cause an arc. Even keep the connector cables away until you’re ready to connect it. Keep them out of the way, and make sure they’re not going to get caught under the battery.

Now move the new battery under the hoist using a second forklift. Make certain the hoist hooks are securely connected to the battery’s lifting hole. Lift the battery up, carefully move it into position, and then lower it into the forklift. Connect the connector cables and power up the forklift to make certain it works.


Post by Intella Liftparts

REPLACING BLOWN FORKLIFT FUSES

Replacing forklift fuses

 

My electric forklift doesn’t run!   Could it be a forklift fuse? Often this is the case. Let’s look at how to check your forklift fuses.

Step one:

Disconnect battery from forklift and discharge capacitor.

 

REPLACING BLOWN FUSES ON ELECTRIC FORKLIFTS

 

Remove covers to gain access to fuse panel.   Control fuses are sometimes found under the dash.  These will be Glass tube or blade type fuses.

 

replacing fusesForklift Fuse Control Panel

 

Most electric forklift fuses are found in the area of the contactor or control panel. You will also find larger power fuses (35 to 500 amps).  Below is a picture of fuses in a standup Yale ESC40-FA forklift.  You’ll see the fuses this truck uses are ANN80 fuses.

 

Electric Forklift Fuses

 

 

Here are photos of other types of forklift fuses you may encounter on electric forklifts.

 

 

forklift fuseforklift flat fuse80a forklift use

 

 

Visually inspect forklift fuses looking for signs of heat (melted or discolored connections). If you have the glass fuses or fuses with a window you may be able to see an open or damaged fuse.

 

If you have access to a multi-meter (VOM), there are multiple methods to test your forklift fuses. You can test using continuity mode or resistance mode. You must remove fuse from circuit in order to properly test using this method. You are looking for no resistance.

 

In rare cases a fuse may pass the visual test and continuity test but may still be the faulty. Forklift fuses can sometimes have enough capacity to show continuity but will not carry current loads. The best method to test a fuse if you suspect this to be the case is to check for voltage. This can be dangerous if proper care is not taken. Be sure to block forklift so that it cannot move if drive circuit is energized unexpectedly. You must first plug in the battery. Always use care when working with live circuits. Locate the common negative terminal. Easily found by following the negative cable from the battery connector the first connection point on the forklift. Keep in mind that electric forklifts are not chassis grounded. Connect your negative lead from your VOM to this terminal. Now probe your fuses on both the supply side and the load side. You should get a reading that closely matches the voltage of your forklift battery at both points. For some control fuses you may need to turn the key on, sit on seat and release park brake in order to energize the circuit prior to testing. If you get the proper voltage reading on both sides of the fuse, the fuse is probably not the cause of the problem.

 

If you want to test the fuse even further you can test it under load. Be careful this can be dangerous if not done properly. If you do not feel comfortable please do not proceed. Fuses are inexpensive. Replace the fuse if you still suspect it is causing problem. If you work carefully, perform proper blocking methods, and be sure to have a clear working area you can energize the circuit and check voltage on load side of fuse. If voltage goes away when circuit is loaded, replace fuse.

 

Always replace fuses with the proper type, value and size. Improper fuses can cause extensive damage to other forklift components.

 

Keep in mind that if you find a blown fuse you should determine the cause to prevent further failures. Often power fuses are damaged from overloading such as pushing loaded pallets along the floor. If this is the case your forklift is working properly and some training is in order for your operator.  If the operator is not the cause you should look for a shorted circuit or component that has caused the failure.  See “How to check for shorted or open circuits

 

Once all connections are made replace covers and reconnect battery. Test operation.

 

Congratulations! You have successfully repaired your forklift.


Post by Intella Liftparts

ELECTRIC FORKLIFT DIAGNOSTICS

ELECTRIC FORKLIFT DIAGNOSTICS

So your forklift won’t move, where do you start?  Here are some basics in understanding electric forklift diagnostics.  Whether your forklift is electric powered or engine powered the problem could be your forklift electrical system. In this article I will explain the basics of electrical forklift diagnostics.

 

Because electricity is not visible, it is not easy to diagnose. Compounding the problem is that electrical schematics and diagrams can be confusing. I will try to equip you with the tools needed for proper diagnosis. A technician has to rely on those tools to show where electricity is, or where it isn’t, and then draw accurate conclusions from that knowledge.

 

If you can learn to “think” like electricity and skillfully use your multi-meter. With an understanding of some basic electrical principles you can then apply them to testing electrical systems.

 

Have you ever witnessed a technician spending time looking at wiring diagrams or drawing sketches on a piece of paper. He was actually diagnosing the problem at hand. A big part of electrical forklift diagnosis is done at the bench before ever lifting a wrench. A multi-meter (VOM) is the second most useful tool in your arsenal after your brain.

 

UNDERSTANDING ELECTRIC FORKLIFT DIAGNOSTICS

 

Computer controlled systems offer another complexity to the way electricity works. It is easy for technicians to replace a control board, often because they don’t understand what it does or how it works. This often results in unnecessary expense and can also cause the new part to be damaged because the original problem was not corrected.

 

By understanding what a control board needs in order to function properly and then ensuring that it has everything it needs to do its job, a technician can successfully determine whether the board needs to be replaced.

 

OK, so let’s get started. A simple understanding of electricity and basic terms is in order.

electric forklift diagnosis

What is VOLTAGE?

Voltage can be thought of as electrical pressure. Voltage is the force that pushes electrons along an electrical conductor. The measurement for voltage is called the volt. There are two types of voltage: alternating current and direct current. In forklift circuits we are use both direct current and alternating current.

 

Direct current voltage (DC voltage) is voltage that is applied in one direction all of the time. Most forklifts use direct current to get their jobs done. Industrial forklift batteries or automotive type batteries supply direct current to the electrical circuits.

 

Alternating current voltage (AC voltage) is voltage that is applied in both directions in an alternating fashion. This is similar to the electricity found in the electrical outlet of your house wiring.

 

Some modern forklifts use AC powered motors as they require less maintenance and can be more efficient than their DC counterparts.

 

What is CURRENT?

Where voltage is the driving force in an electrical circuit, current or amperage is the measurement of how much electricity (electrons) is flowing in a circuit.

 

We measure current in amperes (amps). Current is the quantity of electrons passing a single point at any given time. Current can be measured in both AC and DC circuits.

 

What is RESISTANCE?

Resistance is the opposition of flow in an electrical system. This is sometimes built into the circuit for various functions. All loads create resistance that is normal in a forklift circuit. Resistance can also be caused by lose connections, faulty components and faulty wiring. Understanding resistance can be a key component in understanding how to diagnose electrical circuits.

 

Resistance is measured in OHMS Ω.

 

How can we see these different parts of electricity? Using a VOM we can measure the existence of voltage, amperage, and resistance.

 

To measure voltage; place the black lead of your meter in the com jack of your meter and place the red lead in the V jack. Now adjust the meter to AC or DC depending on the circuit you are testing. Set the meter on auto range. If your meter does not have this functionality, you should set the meter to the highest voltage that you expect to be reading.

 

There are two types of voltage measurements that are useful in forklift diagnosis: available voltage and voltage drop.

 

AVAILABLE VOLTAGE

Available voltage is voltage that is present at any given point in the circuit. You can measure available voltage by placing the red meter lead at some point in the circuit (switch contact, fuse, connector, etc.) and the black meter lead on a common terminal. This test will tell you how much voltage, or electrical pressure, is present to do some work at a given point in the circuit.

 

The available voltage test is good for determining if you have voltage present, but it does not do much in the way of diagnosing what is wrong with the circuit.

 

Available voltage is a good test to use when you want to see whether voltage is present at a point in the circuit or not. You can think of the available voltage test as a “go, no go” type of test.

 

Do not use the available voltage test to determine whether a circuit is functioning properly or not. There may be voltage present at a point in the circuit, but that does not mean that the circuit has what it needs to work.

 

VOLTAGE DROP

The second voltage test while performing electric forklift diagnostics, and by far the most useful, is called a voltage drop test.

 

We say that voltage is “dropped” when some form of load uses all, or a portion of, the voltage available.

 

Loads come in the form of motors, solenoids, contactors, lights, etc. Corrosion, open circuits and damaged contacts can also be considered loads on the system as they can cause voltage drop also. When a load of this type “uses up” or drops voltage, then it may not leave enough available voltage to the rest of the circuit for the circuit to work properly. A voltage drop test will help you to isolate where voltage is being dropped, or used up.

 

Unlike resistance measurements where the circuit is not turned on, a voltage drop test is performed with the circuit working or turned on.

 

To perform a voltage drop test you must place the meter leads at two points within the circuit. Remember, during the voltage available test we place the leads at one point in the circuit and the other to common. In the voltage drop test, both meter leads will be placed in the circuit.

 

With the meter leads placed in the circuit, you are now measuring how much electrical pressure, or voltage, is present between the meter leads. If you measure any voltage at all on the meter display, then there must be some sort of load between the meter leads.

 

Your next job is to determine whether the load that is represented on the meter display is a load that is supposed to be there, or whether it is a load that may be harmful to the circuit. Remembering a few simple rules will allow you to determine if the voltage drop you are measuring is “normal” or not.

 

A meter reading of less than 0.1 volts represents a wire, or switch that is operating normally.

 

A meter reading of full source voltage represents all of the available voltage being dropped. This could be due to an open wire, or it may be a “normal” load that happens to be the only load in the circuit.

CURRENT

The third measurement that can be useful in electric forklift diagnostics is the measurement of current, or of how many electrons are flowing. Current is measured in amperes, or amps for short. Like the voltage drop test, an advantage of measuring current is that the circuit will be performing its function, making this a “real world” test.

 

The technician must first determine what current or amperage draw is normal for the component or circuit he or she is working on. Current specifications for even common circuits can be hard to come by. If specifications are not known they can sometimes be found printed on the component as on a coil or motor. You can also compare to a known good component.

 

The second drawback to testing current during electric forklift diagnostics is in that the meter must be installed in series with the circuit you are testing. Since current measurements are actually measuring how many electrons are flowing in the circuit, all of the electrons in the circuit must pass through the meter. This means that the meter must become part of the circuit. An ammeter must be installed in series with the circuit, at a location where the maximum current within the circuit will flow through the meter. This involves opening the circuit up and connecting the meter leads in series with the circuit.

 

There are a number of good locations for opening up a circuit up to install the meter while performing electric forklift diagnostics, with the most popular, and often the easiest, being at a circuit fuse. This is done by removing the fuse and installing the meter leads on either side of the fuse connectors.

 

The third drawback to using current as a diagnostic tool is that you may not know how much current is flowing before you install your meter. The current flowing is often more than what your meter can handle. Although a quality meter is fused, often these fuses will blow when trying to measure current because the circuit being tested uses higher current than what your meter is designed for.

 

To get around these last two drawbacks, technicians will use an “amp clamp” or an inductive ammeter for electric forklift diagnostics. This device uses the electromagnetic field that forms when electricity flows through a conductor in order to determine how much current is flowing in a circuit.

 

Amp clamps have two significant advantages: firstly the circuit does not have to be opened up to install the ammeter, and secondly the amount of current flowing in the circuit cannot damage the meter. The disadvantage is that you must purchase an amp clamp that measures the range of current you expect to find. It is not possible to purchase a single clamp that will measure all current ranges.

 

With these basics, a good Multi-meter, and a wiring diagram or schematic the technician can navigate circuits to determine where voltages or currents exist in there correct specifications. Before replacing components a good mechanic will assure that all necessary wiring and circuitry is in place that could cause component to fail.


Post by Intella Liftparts

Forklift won’t start – Here’s how to diagnose the problem

Your forklift won’t start. The shipment has arrived at your dock with your raw materials for the hot job you need to get started on. You jump on the forklift to unload and turn the key. Nothing happens, no starter growling it’s just dead. What do you do? The repair man says he can’t make it out until tomorrow. You need to get this done so here is where to start.

 

Basic troubleshooting for a no start condition

 

There are some easy steps that you can take to simplify the process. Your headlights can tell you a lot about what is going on. The very first thing to do is check to see if the lights work. If they turn on, are they bright? Do they dim when you blow the horn? This quick test

Forklift won’t start test tool

can tell you a lot about your system. If the lights did not light at all you may have a blown main power fuse, corroded battery connections. Loose or broken ground connection. Don’t forget to check the connection at the starter and or starter solenoid.  If the lights come on but dim when horn is blown or start switch is turned your problem is likely a dead battery or bad connection.

 

 

 

If you have a VOM (volts-ohm-meter) you can check the voltage. A fully charged battery will read approximately 13.2 volts. If the voltage drops at the battery terminals under  load this indicates that

forklift VOM meter

the battery is probably the source of your problem and needs further testing.  Fully charge the battery and retest. If the battery does not take a full 13.2 v charge it is time to replace. If your battery is good and you still have a problem you can continue to diagnose by moving your  lead down the line you can determine the location of the problem by locating the point that the voltage drops off.  A simple test light can be used for this process.

 

If you have battery voltage at the starter solenoid but you do not hear an audible click when the start switch is activated then you may need to replace the solenoid.

A typical start circuit consists of a fuse, ignition switch, forklift brake switch, neutral switch, seat switch, and starter solenoid. Your system may vary. The newer the forklift the more complex they have become. Other features found on newer forklifts include but are not limited to: brake pedal switch, seat belt switch, mast height limiter switch, Dead man switch, etc.

 

forklift starter circuit diagram
forklift starter circuit diagram

 

Check all components for continuity and adjustment. Often a visual check of these areas will reveal the problem.

 

This tutorial is not intended as a comprehensive repair guide. Hopefully it will help you find the most common causes of a no start condition involving the starter circuit. It would take a small book to go over every potential cause for the starter to not engage. If you cannot find the problem using this guide then I suggest that it may be time to call in the professional.

 

Consider yourself fortunate if you are working on an older forklift. These are generally much simpler to diagnose and repair. The circuits in these older trucks are generally wired in series. When the non-functioning part is found a simple wiring repair, adjustment or component replacement is all that is needed to get your unit up and running.

Look for future articles discussing what to do if your engine turns over but does not start.  Learn more about our forklift starters here.

 

 


Post by Intella Liftparts

Hour meters from the past

clock forklift hour meter

Here’s something we recently stumbled on– an ancient clock style forklift hour meter.  We found this one on an old Hyster forklift. Curious how to read old hour meters like this one?  Check out the photo below for instructions.   From the instructions, it appears our hour meter reads 1,753 hours.  Check it out!

 

In case you wondered, we don’t sell these old style meters.  They’re most likely found in museums these days.  Hour meters are important, however.  They allow you to keep track of how long the forklift has been in operation, how long since the last oil filter changed or maintenance interval, and gives you a good idea how much the forklift has been used.

forklift hour meter

Our forklift hour meters are pretty universal.  They fit in nearly any dash opening and can be used for any forklift or for that matter piece of equipment with an input voltage of 8-80 volts DC.

Instructions on reading hour meters

Click the image below for a larger version.

How to read clock style hour meters


Post by Intella Liftparts

GE EV-100 codes explained

Q: What is the EV-100 control system?

A: General Electric manufactured the EV-100 control system for a number of years and it was, at least for a while, in the running for the best selling electric forklift control system of all time.  Today forklift technology has moved on and the EV-100 system is a relic from the past.

However, if your EV-100 system still works as it should, you’ve come to the right place for any parts you may need.  Intella carries transistors, diodes, contactors, rectifiers, and most other replacement parts for the EV-100 system. See some of these parts below, and see our full catalog of forklift parts here.

 

 

forklift transistor Intella Liftparts EV-100forklift diode Intella Liftparts EV-100forklift contactor GE Intella Liftparts

forklift rectifier Intella Liftparts

 

The GE EV-100 LX/LXT forklift system displays certain codes when the lift isn’t working correctly.  Wondering how to interpret one of these error codes? Look no further. View or download the attached PDF file for a chart of common error codes, their symptoms, their causes, and their possible solutions.

 

GE EV-100 error codes by Intella Liftparts

 


 

Having trouble with error codes from another brand? Check out these other helpful links:

 

If you need parts, Intella can help.  We have thousands of parts available at great prices and would be happy to help you find what you’re looking for.  Click here for more information!

 

Also you can check out Intella’s YouTube channel for how-to videos and product demos


Post by Intella Liftparts