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How-To Forklift Articles Archives

Forklift Hydraulic Pump Failure

forklift hydraulic pump failure

System contamination is a leading cause of forklift hydraulic pump failure. Hydraulic repair is an important process to do to improve your equipment’s longevity. There are multiple causes for system contamination including:

  • Improper fluid flushing after repair
  • A non-thorough cleaning job is performed
  • Technician does not remove contaminants from hydraulic system
  • Technician cannot see the oil cleanliness level before or after repairs

Phases of Wear

Wear on a lift truck begins as soon as it is put into use. Some wear can be identified through regular maintenance checks, while other wear may not be noticeable until later. As a lift truck gets older, it may show signs of wear during routine maintenance. Oil analysis can help identify potential issues. At this stage, it may be possible to keep the lift truck operating normally by addressing the wear. However, if too much wear has occurred, it may be necessary to replace components or perform an overhaul. The task of a service technician is to monitor the lift truck and make any necessary changes when wear or contamination is detected, using regular maintenance practices and tools like filter caddies. An effective oil analysis program should allow for early detection of issues that may require a flush, allowing for a simple oil change rather than a more extensive procedure. The success of this detection depends on taking oil samples at the right intervals and using appropriate laboratory tests.

Phases of Wear Table

As Time Progresses
Operating NormalOperating NormalSome Symptoms AppearPerformance IssuesFailure
Non Detectable WearSome wear detectable through fluid analysisPoint of no return
Visible wear, changes in behaviorVery visible symptoms and wearForensics
Objective is to increase the operating time with non detectable wear through standard maintenance practices, including conditioning units (filter caddy) and an oil analysis program.
forklift hydraulic pump failure

Causes of Hydraulic System Failure

According to industry data, a forklift hydraulic pump failure, which occur at a rate of 70-80%, is likely not due to design issues, but rather to contaminants such as water or lubricant degradation. These contaminants can be introduced through various means, including improper maintenance and service procedures, the addition of fluids, the replacement of failed components, and dirty equipment or parts storage. Contamination can also occur due to ingression, such as through leaky cylinder seals or poorly maintained reservoir vents, as well as due to internal wear and part failure. Additionally, chemical reactions between lubricant additives, water, air, heat, and metallic particles can also contribute to contamination.

Contaminant Caused Hydraulic System Failure

When there are high levels of contaminants in a hydraulic system, it can lead to wear on all moving parts and erosion of soft metals. Chemical reactions between additives and water or incompatible oils can also cause etching, which reduces pump efficiency and increases the likelihood of internal leaks and high temperatures. High temperatures can reduce the life of oil additives and impair the lubricant’s ability to separate moving parts, and metallic particles can contribute to the rapid oxidation of the lubricant. This destructive process can result in the failure of major components, such as pumps or cylinders, and when a failure does occur, it can release millions of metallic particles, fibers, and contaminated oil throughout the system. Simply replacing the oil in the reservoir is not enough to fully restore the system.

Double Oil and Filter Change

This process is intended for lightly contaminated systems or those with degraded fluid, and should not be used for systems that have experienced major component failures. It is worth noting that replacing a large volume of oil and disposing of contaminated oil can be costly, and if the oil is not degraded, this would be a waste since it is only contaminated and not degraded. To “condition the fluid” by removing particles and water, a filter caddy can be used.

This process involves an initial oil drain and filter change to remove a significant portion of contaminants and degraded fluid. The system is then filled with pre-filtered oil and the fluid is circulated at low pressure until it reaches operating temperature, each hydraulic function has been operated three full cycles, and the fluid has been turned over at least five times. The oil is drained again, the system is refilled with filtered oil, and the filters are changed a second time. After the fluid has been circulated, each circuit has been operated three full cycles, and the system has warmed up to operating temperature, an appropriate oil sample should be taken to evaluate the success of the flush.

forklift hydraulic pump failure

Mechanical Cleaning

When a forklift hydraulic pump failure or cylinder failure has occurred, it is necessary to include mechanical cleaning as part of the flushing strategy. This involves using a pneumatic projectile gun and sponge projectiles to clean tubes and hoses, as well as disassembling other components for cleaning using brushes and clean solvents. It is important to also mechanically clean the reservoir to remove any residual contamination particles. While mechanical cleaning can be labor-intensive, it is the most effective way to restore the system to reliable operation after major mechanical failure.

Component Cleaning Process

Reservoir Cleaning Process

  1. Ensure absolute cleanliness in all of the following procedures.
  2. Clean the top of the filter housing, cap, and surrounding surface to avoid adding extra contaminant.
  3. Remove the filter housing cap, filter element, and element bowl to allow access to the interior.
  4. Use a filter caddy to pump the fluid from the reservoir to a storage container to dispose of.
  5. Remove all remaining oil from reservoir.
  6. Remove and get rid of the suction strainer.
  7. Remove and get rid of the reservoir breather.
  8. Clean the reservoir to remove all contaminants.
  9. Clean all accumulated metallic particles from the magnetic plug and reinstall.
  10. Install new reservoir breather.
  11. Install new suction strainer.
  12. Cover the reservoir openings until ready to perform flushing operation.

Cylinder Cleaning Procedure

  1. Ensure absolute cleanliness in all of the following procedures.
  2. Clean the external surfaces using industrial, residue free wipes prior to loosening fittings and components.
  3. Cover all connecting hose and cylinder openings immediately with caps to prevent dirt and debris from penetrating the system.
  4. Disassemble the cylinder and clean all parts with filtered petroleum based solvent to remove all contamination particles. Ensure that you clean the seal grooves, gland nut, and port threads.
  5. Install new seal kits.
  6. Fill the cylinder with filtered hydraulic fluid. This will displace the air and reduce the risk of air compression in the cylinder that can cause dieseling during initial pressurization at start up. Dieseling will result in damage to the cylinder and seals.
  7. Plug all ports and reinstall into the equipment.

Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Paint a Forklift

Need help deciding which paint you need? Click here!

Why It is Important to Know How to Paint a Forklift

Knowing how to properly paint a forklift is crucial for maintaining the structure and integrity of the surface. This article will outline how to properly paint a forklift.

how to paint a forklift

Overall Principles

  1. Surface Preparation is Crucial

    Coating performance and longevity is directly related to surface preparation. Approximately 80% of all coating failures can be attributed to improper surface preparation. Choosing which method to use to prepare the surface is dependent on surface material, current paint, pain going to be used, and environment.

  2. Previously Coated Surfaces

    All previous contamination, such as oil, grease, loose paint, dirt, and overall foreign contaminants, needs to be removed before applying a new coat of paint.

  3. Touch-Up, Maintenance, and Repair

    In order for a proper coating to last a long time, scheduled maintenance must be performed to maintain coat integrity. This includes, but is not limited to: inspection of painted areas, removing oils, removing foreign chemicals, and removing all other foreign contaminants.

Removing Previous Coats & SSPC/NACE Standards

  1. SSPC-SP-1 Solvent Cleaning

    This is a method that removes all visible oil, grease, soil, drawing and all other foreign contaminants. Click here to learn more.

  2. SSPC-SP-2 Hand Tool Cleaning

    This method removes all loose mill scale, rust, and other foreign matter. Before using this method, remove all oil, grease, welding residues, and salts. Click here to learn more.

  3. SSPC-SP-3 Power Tool Cleaning

    Similarly to the previous method, Power Tool Cleaning helps remove loose mill scale, rust, and other foreign matter. In that sense, Power Tool Cleaning is nearly identical to the Hand Tool Cleaning method. Click here to learn more.

  4. Blast Cleaning

    The following methods remove all oil, grease, dirt, dust, mill scale, rust, pain, and oxides should all be removed making them extremely effective methods.

    1. SSPC-SP5/NACE1 White Metal Blast Cleaning
    2. SSPC-SP6/NACE3 Commercial Blasting Cleaning
    3. SSPC-SP7/NACE4 Brush-Off Blast Cleaning
    4. SSPC-SP10/NACE2 Near-White Blast Cleaning
  5. SSPC-SP12/NACE5 High and Ultra-High

    This method utilizes high and ultra-high water pressure water jetting to remove various foreign material.

Click here to read full manual

Conclusion

To properly paint a forklift, a proper and thorough paint removal procedure must be employed. This ensures that the next coat of paint will have a long lifespan. Have questions? Leave a comment below or call us at (616) 796-6638!


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Assemble and Disassemble a Forklift Carriage

JUMP-TO LINKS: Assemble Forklift Carriage, Disassemble Forklift Carriage

How To: Remove & Install Forklift Carriage

  1. To start, raise carriage (1), position a wooden block as shown, and lower carriage (1) onto the wooden block.

  2. remove carriage
  3. Next, disconnect two hydarulic lines (4) from side shifter cylinder. Plug and cap all openings to prevent contamination.

  4. install carriage
  5. Then, remove four bolts (8) from the chain guard/hose support assembly. Set the hoses aside away from the cylinder & cross head.

  6. remove install carriage
  7. Remove two bolts (10) from the hose mounting bracket and set the hoses aside. Then, remove the nuts (9) from the chain anchors and set them aside away from the clear of the mast.

  8. Now, use a tool to remove the retainer ring (11) from the cross head shift.

  9. Remove the cross head (12) from the shaft.
  10. Remove the carriage bolts (13).

  11. Raise the inner mast in order to pull out carriage.

  12. remove forklift carriage
  13. Remove the carriage from the bottom of the inner mast (15). Carriage (14) weighs 255 lb.
  14. Raise the inner mast to put in the carriage onto the mast and lower the inner mast to cover the carriage (1) bearing fully.
  15. Install the carriage bolts (13).
  16. Now, install the cross head(12) and retaining ring (11).
  17. install forklift carriage
  18. Put the chains in position over the cross head (12), install nuts (9) onto the chain anchors, and install the bolts (10) onto the hose mounting bracket.

  19. Install the chain guard and hose support assembly (6) and four bolts (8).

  20. install carriage
  21. Finally, connect two hydraulic lines (4) to their original positions. End by installing the backrest and the forks.


How To: Disassemble Forklift Carriage

  1. First, remove the roller pins & pins (2) to disconnect the chains (1).

  2. disassemble carriage
  3. Next, remove the four lower roller bearings (3) and the shims from the carriage.

  4. disassemble forklift carriage
  5. Finally, remove the screw (5) and washer (4) and remove the top roller bearings (6) and the shims.



How To: Assemble Forklift Carriage


Carriage Adjustment (3) Upper bearings. (4) Shims. (5) Bolts. (6) screw. (7) Middle bearings. (8) Lower Bearings. (A) Zero clearance. (B) 6.0-9.0mm. (C) Minimum CLearance.
  1. To start, select lower bearings from the belwo chart to obtain a minimum clearance (B) between bearings and channel leg for full channel length.

  2. Next, find the narrowest point by ruler on the inner mast in the area where the bearings make contact.

  3. assemble carriage
  4. Now, install enough shims (4) that have been equally divided behind the bearings (3). At installation, the should be no contact (zero clearance (A)) between bearings and the narrowest point, as described in step 2.

  5. assemble forklift carriage
  6. Then, do steps 2-3 for the other set of bearings (8) & (9).

  7. assemble forklift carriage
  8. Tighten screw (5) that holds the top bearings carriage. There should be a torque of 34 +/- 7 Nm (newton meters).
  9. Shim stop bolt (11) as required to obtain a 6-9 mm lap with top carriage stop on the inner upright.

  10. Finally, position the chains (6) on the carriage and install the pins (7) and the roll pins.


Got questions?


Give us a call at (616) 796-6638, or leave a reply below.


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Replace Forklift Mast Rollers

Purpose

This article will outline how to accurately and efficiently calculate which mast and carriage rollers are needed for a specific model in addition to answering how to replace forklift mast rollers. This includes: mast model, bearing part number, outer diameter size.

Installing Lift Bracket Rollers (for all mast models)

To disassemble, follow the sequence in reverse.

reassembly mast

Sequence:

1. Lift Bracket2. Lift bracket upper rollers3. Lift bracket middle rollers
4. Lift bracket lower rollers5. Side rollers6. Inner Mast

Definitions

Clearance G: clearance between roller side surface and inner mast thrust surface. This is used to determine the amount of shims at the bearing seat. Measure Clearance G between the side of the surface of the roller and inner mast. Measurement range: 0.1 to 0.5 mm (0.004 to 0.020 in.)

Clearance F: clearance between roller circumference and inner mast thrust surface. This is used to determine the proper size of the rollers. Measurement Range: 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) or less

Clearance G1: clearance between side roller circumference and inner mast side roller thrust surface. Measurement Range: 0.1 to 0.5 mm (0.004 to 0.020 in.)

Instructions

  1. Choosing Correct Roller Diameters

    Measure clearance F for upper roller 2, middle roller 3, and lower roller 4. If not in the range, replace the rollers. The rollers should function smoothly.

  2. Adjusting clearance G between the middle roller and thrust plate

    Measure clearance G between the middle roller and thrust plate. If not in the measurement range, adjust clearance G.

    If clearance G is too high, increase the thickness of shims, and vice versa.

  3. Adjusting clearance G between lower rollers and inner mast

    Measure clearance G between the lower rollers and inner mast. Adjust clearance G as described in the previous point.

  4. Installing main rollers

    Use a driving tool to properly install main rollers on shafts. Do not strike the outer roller surface while installing.

  5. Adjusting clearance G1 between the side roller and inner mast

    Measure the clearance of G1 between the side roller’s rolling contact surface and inner mast. If the measure is not in the range mentioned above, adjust the clearance in the following manner: if G1 clearance is excessive, increase the thickness of the shims and vice versa.

Diagram describing how to install main rollers

How to Replace Forklift Mast Rollers (for all mast models)

install mast rollers

Instructions

  1. Measure clearance F between the rollers’ contact surface and masts

    If this value is not in the range (1.0 mm / 0.04in, or less), replace with rollers with the correct diameters listed in the table below (figure 1)

  2. Measure clearance G between the rollers and the masts

    If the measured clearances exceeds the range (0.1 to 0.5mm, 0.004 to 0.020 in.)

All mast rollers are identical in shape and size. Thus, clearance F should be 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) or less and clearance G should be 0.1 to 0.5 mm (0.004 to 0.020 in.). If the measured clearances are incorrect, replace the rollers with the correct diameters listed in the below in figure 1.

If measured value clearance G exceeds the standard value, increase the thickness of shims (e) – (j). Standard values can be seen here:

Item1 ton class (mm)2, 3 ton classes (mm)
Shim (e)21
Shim (f)21
Shim (g)11
Shim (h)21
Shim (i)21
Shim (j)21
mast and carriage main rollers sizes
Figure 1

Where do I find the part numbers?

mast part number location

Have Questions?

Leave a comment below or gives us a call at (616) 796-6638 and we can help calculate your mast and carriage rollers!


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Calculate Forklift Capacity With Attachments

Calculating the forklift capacity is critical for safely and efficiently operating equipment. To start, let’s define what load center is of a forklift. The load center is the horizontal distance from the center of mass to the forklift itself, or, in simpler terms, the middle of the load.

forklift capacity load center
The load center is located where the arrow is pointing

The load center is relevant as it specifies how far you can place your mass before the forklift will be over in either direction.

Calculate Forklift Capacity

To start, each lift truck is given specific ratings that specify relevant information, these are typically found on the truck name plate. This same principle applies for attachments. The first rating will give the maximum fork height, and the second rating will give the increased capacity amount at a lower fork height.

Each attachment is given a reduction factor that is to be used to calculate the forklift capacity.

Example 1: The image below gives an example of a capacity name plate where the information is already filled out. The attachment that is applied has a reduction factor of 1,500 lbs. Given that the original maximum capacity, without the attachment, is 8,000 lbs, we simply do 8,000 – 1,500 = 6,000 lbs to calculate forklift capacity with the attachment.

forklift capacity name plate
Capacity name plate

Example 2: Technical data sheets give very helpful information as to how to calculate the capacity. Let’s say you add a paper roll clamp on a gas, cushion tire, 6,000 lb. truck that has a mass of 102/228. This would bring us to the last row of the technical data sheet.

The capacity with forklift forks is 4,150 lbs (24″ load center, 228″ fork height) and a rated capacity of 6,000 lbs (24″ load center, 228″ height). For this scenario, let’s say it is given that the reduction factor for a 6,000 lb truck is 1,700 lbs. Because there are more than one rated capacities, you take the lowest after applying the reduction factor. 6,000 – 1700 = 4,300 lbs and 4,150 – 1700 = 2,250

Technical data sheet

Want to learn more about basic lift truck terminology, technical aspects of forklifts, etc?

Click here to read the entire PDF.

An easy on line tool is available for this as well.   Cascade publishes an online tool where you can enter your technical specifications of your existing forklift, specifications from the attachment, and then determine the new, lower capacity of your forklift with the new attachment installed on it.  Click here.


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Replace Load Wheels

The load wheels of a machine are primarily responsible for carrying the load, and typically carry the braking system making them a vital component of its respective machine, thus making it important to replace load wheels when needed. Depending on the material that your machine drives on will determine what type of material is needed.

Common materials include the following: polyurethane, nylon, steel and rubber. In addition to material type, level of hardness is also a key attribute. With these components comes a difficult decision: which material do I need for MY machinery?

Load Wheels By Brand

Out of convenience, Intella separates them by brand of forklift. We offer load wheels for the following brands: Yale, Clark, Hyster, Toyota, Crown, Raymond, and CAT.

How to Replace Load Wheels

We made a step by step YouTube video on how to replace load wheels. Here are all the steps:

Step 1: Remove Roll Pin and Pivot Pin

replace load wheels

Step 2: Punch New Bearings In

replace load wheels

Step 3: Install Wheel in New Riser

replace load wheels

Step 4: Tap in Roll Pins

replace load wheel

Step 5: Install New Pivot Pin in Riser/Link

replace load wheels

Step 6: Install Riser into Jack. Install New Roll Pins

replace load wheels

Step 7: Apply Grease, Install Riser into Jack

replace load wheels

Step 8: Install New Bearings into Wheels

replace load wheels

Step 9: Install New Wheel

Step 10: Apply Grease

Click here to watch the entire video.


Why Buy?

All of these forklift brands–Yale, Clark, Hyster, Toyota, Crown, Raymond, CAT— don’t manufacture their own load wheels, so when you buy from Intella, you’re most likely buying from the same suppliers as them ensuring that the load wheel you purchase fits the model you use. Intella also offers the best parts prices across the internet!

Need help?

Unsure of which one you need? Give us a call at 616-796-6638 (or email us at [email protected]) for a product lookup and experience our top notch customer service!


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to fix Clark Forklift Brakes

Clark forklift brake systems are fairly straight forward to work on. Some have wet brakes, others utilize traditional brake shoe brake set ups.

Replacing Brakes Overview

Brakes are vital to an equipment’s efficiency and usability. It’s important to replace brakes when they are worn down to maintain the safety of the operator and the wellbeing of the equipment. Luckily, replacing forklift brakes is not an overwhelming task and can be performed with just a little mechanical skill.

This tutorial will outline how to fix Clark forklift brakes with brake shoes.

clark forklift brake hardware

To start, remove hardware

how to fix clark forklift brake

Next, remove studs

Next, cap the brake line

Next, remove wheel cylinder

Next, spray down and clean assembly with brake parts cleaner

Next, re-install wheel cylinder

Next, use Loctite on studs

fix clark forklift brake

Most hardware can be re-used.

clark brake hardware

Then, Re-install brake hardware

Install new brake shoes

fix clark forklift brake

Press-in new seals

fix clark forklift brake bearing

Re-install new wheel bearing

clark brake drum

Re-install brake drum

Finally, Re-install cushion tire and wheel

Full video: Click Here

Intella Parts Company proudly sells a broad range of forklift parts for many forklift brands, including Clark. In addition, Intella offers industry renowned customer service! Call now at 616-796-6638!

Interested in more help to guides? Intella has a YouTube page!


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Replace a Toyota Forklift Seat

A worn out seat is no fun, especially if you’re expected to sit in it for multiple continuous hours. Luckily, Intella offers a selection of replacement seats, and this blog will outline how to replace a Toyota forklift seat.

Toyota forklifts with model numbers that begin with 6 or 7 (like 6FGCU25 or 7FGCU25) use unique seats custom designed for Toyota. Intella offers aftermarket replacements for these seats. There are no replacement cushions available for these seats because of the design of the seat.

How to Replace Your Forklift Seat Yourself

It’s super easy to replace a Toyota forklift seat yourself, all you need are a socket set and a little mechanical ability.

Swing out the LPG tank. There’s a latch on the back near the tank which will allow you to swing it out.

replace a toyota forklift seat

Slide the old seat all the way forward

Find the hood release and open the hood

replace a toyota forklift seat

Remove 4 bolts from the bottom of the forklift seat deck.

Remove the old seat

Fit the new seat in place. Our seat will fit exactly, no drilling should be required.

replace a toyota forklift seat

Fasten in place with new bolts

For full video: Click here

Need a toyota forklift seat or want to see our full lineup of our forklift seats? Intella Parts Company can help!

Have a question on how to replace a Toyota forklift seat? Call us at 616-798-6638.


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to fix an Aisan Fuel Regulator

“How to fix an Aisan fuel regulator” is a common question for equipment owners, so we, at Intella, decided to create an outline on how to fix one. Given how important the fuel regulator is to your equipment, it’s important to keep them well intact. This blog will give step by step directions on how to fix your regulator.


Brief Aisan Fuel Regulator Introduction

Aisan fuel systems are used in a variety of different forklifts including Toyota, Hyster, and Yale. Aisan is partly owned by Toyota so you see mainly see these regulators in Toyota forklifts.

Rebuild or Replace the Entire Unit

Rebuilding an Aisan regulator is a bit more difficult than the traditional and popular Impco model J. Depending on your skill level, you might want to simply replace the entire unit.

How to Rebuild the Aisan Regulator

fix Aisan fuel regulator

Remove solenoid from unit

Remove back studs with socket

Fix Aisan fuel regulator

Remove seals and pad

Remove screws

Remove parts from new Aisan repair kit

Re-install valve parts

fix Aisan fuel regulator

Re-install back cover

Install diaphragm

Install o-ring and spring

Re-install pad and oring

Fix Aisan fuel regulator

Re-install sintered metal filter

Re-install solenoid

For full length YouTube video: Click Here

Buying an Aisan Fuel Regulator

Looking to purchase an Aisan fuel regulator? Buy one here! If you have any other questions, please call us at 616-796-6638 and speak to one of our industry renowned customer support specialists.


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC

How to Fix Forklift Steer Axle

This blog will give a picture based guide how to fix your forklift steer axle. Steer axles take a beating on forklifts. There are a number of wear components which wear out and get damaged. In this tutorial you’ll see how to replace some of the most common wear items.

Intella Parts also offers complete remanufactured axles as well. This might be the best option if you have extreme wear on the cast portion of the steer axle.

Fix Forklift Steer Axle

fix forklift steer axle

Install new needle bearings

fix forklift steer axle

Check fit and install new king pin

Re-install knuckle

fix forklift steer axle

Install shims and thrust bearings

fix forklift steer axle

Check operation of knuckle

Install bearings on opposite side

Tap out bearing for cylinder mounting

Try fit on dog bone link

Install pins

Install pins and dog bone on opposite side of knuckle

Install grease fittings

Apply grease to each grease fitting

For full video: Click here

If you are looking to purchase a forklift steer axle, Intella Parts offers a wide selection of different options in addition to our massive selection of parts.

Unsure of which one you need? Give us a call at 616-796-6638 to speak with one of our customer support specialists and experience our industry renowned customer service!


Post by Intella Parts Company, LLC