Construction Skills: Resources for Apprentices

What is a Construction Apprentice?

Flickr - Official U.S. Navy Imagery - Seabees work on school in Djibouti.

A construction apprentice is a novice construction worker who is learning the trade. He takes a number of courses to learn the skills required while also working under the supervision of a master construction worker to gain practical experience. Apprentices are usually young—most start directly out of high school at age 18, although some may be older. Most apprentice programs require applicants to have a high school diploma or GED certificate. A worker is usually an apprentice for three to five years, depending on their skill and education.

Apprentices learn a number of different skills, including proper tool use, construction methods, and safety. In the classroom, they study different types of construction and learn the theory behind the different methods. Most apprentice programs offer employment opportunity assistance, and many apprentices are hired full-time by the company they did their training under.

Construction Schools

Portland Building Blueprints

Those who are interested in becoming a construction apprentice will need to find a trade school that offers a program in construction and building. These programs will provide apprentices with a solid foundation in the theory and methods of construction. While the coursework generally doesn’t include practical skills (those are gained through the on-the-job training portion of an apprenticeship), students do learn things such as the math behind construction, how to read and create blueprints, and what it takes to be a construction manager or independent contractor.

Many construction schools require students to take at least one course that focuses solely on safety on the construction site. This is an extremely important part of an apprentice’s training since safety is of the utmost importance.

Machinery Schools

Docker on forklift

In addition to construction schools, most construction apprentices will need to go to machinery school. In fact, they may need to attend several different certification programs to gain all of the skills and certifications they need. Many machinery programs do include many of these skills and offer various certifications, however, especially those offered by trade schools and colleges.

Machinery schools will teach apprentices all of the basics needed for operating and maintaining equipment such as forklifts and flatbed trucks. Some may touch on how to make minor repairs to equipment, too. Like construction programs, machinery education also stresses safety. Courses such as forklift operation and safety guarantee that apprentices learn how to operate vehicles and machinery in such a way as to not injure themselves or others.

Resources for Employers Looking for Apprentices

Chemrec 5 - small

Many employers like to hire apprentices for several reasons. First, it provides them with fairly cheap labor. Apprentices do get paid for their practical apprenticeships (if an apprenticeship is not offered paid, he or she should be very leery about taking the job), but they don’t get paid as much as a licensed worker who has several certifications. Taking on apprenticeships allows the employer to form a working relationship with trade schools. This often results in the trade school sending the employer a number of apprentices on a regular basis. The trade school then has a reliable construction company with which to place their apprentices, while the employer can rely on having a number of apprentices to put to work. Everyone benefits.

In addition to reaching out to trade schools, employers can find apprentices through several different methods. Some advertise in their city newspapers or online. Others put the word out that they’re looking to hire new apprentices. Often, word of mouth works surprisingly well. However, it can be unreliable, so many employers turn to resources such as the following.

Post by Intella Liftparts

Avoiding Common Forklift Hazards

Forklifts transformed the shipping and storage industry. Without them, the process of moving large amounts of heavy products would take much, much longer and many more people. However, even though they are an absolute necessity to the warehouse and shipping industries, forklifts are also dangerous vehicles. There are a number of hazards that are associated with forklifts, and if you aren’t careful, you can easily injure yourself and others while driving one. Here are some of the common hazards associated with forklifts and some ways of avoiding them.

Vehicle Transportation Trailer

Why Forklifts can be Dangerous

Forklifts can be dangerous for many of the same reasons that any vehicle can be dangerous. When driving one, it goes from being a stationary object to a mobile block of heavy metal. If the driver isn’t paying attention, it’s easy to hit someone with the forklift, and while the vehicle may not be moving as fast as a car, it’s still going to hurt and can be fatal. Forklifts can move deceptively fast for their size and weight, especially when they have no load.

Another issue is that forklifts are so heavy that even an impact at slow speeds can be dangerous. What might stop other vehicles may not stop the momentum of the heavy forklift, which means it can cause much more damage than you may think. The long forks in the front are also very dangerous, and beginner forklift drivers often don’t realize exactly how far they stick out.

Common Hazards

Vehicle Transportation Trailer

There are a host of common hazards that forklift operators need to be aware of. These hazards can lead to a number of accidents, most of which are caused by carelessness.

Visibility is a major issue with forklifts. When carrying large loads on the forks, it can be very difficult for drivers to see what’s in front of them.

Improperly loading the forklift is another common issue that can lead to injury and damage. If the forklift isn’t loaded evenly, it’s very easy for the center of gravity to move too far forward, backwards, or to one side. Then the forklift becomes unbalanced and can tip forward or to the side.

While regulations do outline when forklifts are to be inspected and undergo maintenance, this doesn’t always happen due to negligence, lack of time, or some other reason. This can lead to a forklift parts breaking or malfunctioning in the middle of being used, which can cause the load to fall or be abruptly lowered.

One common hazard that has nothing to do with the forklift itself is improper surfacing or maintenance of such surfaces. A forklift with a heavy load cannot move up or down steep ramps without danger. Ramps that aren’t secured, sturdy, or in good condition may move or collapse under the weight of the forklift, leading to injury and damage.

Older forklifts that have had major issues or have begun showing their age should be retired. Continuing to use these older vehicles can lead to malfunctions in the middle of moving a load.

How to Avoid or Preempt these Common Hazards

There are several things operators and supervisors can do to help reduce the chances of these common hazards occurring. The first is proper training and adherence to training and regulations. Operators need to follow all precautions when driving, especially if they know they are in an area that sees a good amount of foot traffic. The same is true when backing up and when making turns or cornering. Forklift seat belts should be worn at all times, mirrors should always be used when backing up, etc.

Forklifts and all
all forklift parts
need to be checked over, maintained, and, if necessary, replaced or repaired on a regular schedule. There should be no reason to skip an inspection or maintenance cycle.

Forklifts should never be moved without first making certain that the load is balanced and secure. If the load ever starts to shift, the forklift should be stopped immediately.

No one who has not been trained and certified to operate a forklift should ever be allowed to drive one, even if it’s just to move the vehicle from one place to another without a load on it. Certified operators are the only ones who should ever be in the forklift seat.

Older forklifts or forklifts that have been malfunctioning should never be used. They should be repaired whenever possible or replaced when they can no longer be fixed.

Training and Safety Information

All forklift operators need to have been certified in the operation and maintenance of forklifts. However, a large number of forklift operators do not actually have the training needed to drive the vehicles. In fact, allowing untrained operators to drive a forklift is a very common OSHA violation.

In order to be eligible to drive a forklift, a person must be at least 18 years old and must have completed a certification program. Their employer also has to give them authorization to operate the vehicle. There are a number of different training and certification programs around the nation that employees can enroll in. However, it’s important for operators to be trained on the specific type of forklift they will be operating and not assume that they can drive any forklift just because they’ve been certified.

The following are three training courses that operators may want to look into:

  • IVES Training Group – This group will work with employers to do an in-house training for forklift operators.
  • ProLogistix Certification Services – A professional training company that also helps place operators with employers.
  • Crane Institute of America – They offer a train-the-trainer course in which employers can learn how to train their own employees and become a certified forklift operator trainer.


Forklifts are absolutely vital in many industries, but it’s always important to remember that they are heavy equipment and can be dangerous. With the right training, attention, and caution, however, they can safely be used without incident.

Post by Intella Liftparts

Zapi Error Codes

Zapi makes parts for the following forklift manufacturers: Yale, Hyster, Crown, and more.

The following will be PDFs that can help you in your troubleshooting with Zapi parts:

Number of LED flashes: 1

Possible Alarm Messages:






Type of Alarm: Logic Test Fail

We offer Zapi handsets for testing your Zapi controller
(click image to go to product)
Many Zapi systems use this battery discharge indicator
We offer remanufactured Zapi controllers like this one for Hyster

Post by Intella Liftparts

Danaher Troubleshooting Codes

Inmotion is a manufacturer of control systems for electric forklifts.  If you open an electric forklift which is made by Yale or Hyster, there’s a good chance you’ll find a control system labelled with “Inmotion” or Danaher”. Danaher/Inmotion have been known as other names over the years, a timeline from their corporate website can be found below:


2014 – Zapi S.p.A aquires EVS from Danaher. Company name is changed to Inmotion

2009 – Vehicle business (EVS) of Danaher Motion changes name to the Kollmorgen brand

2002 – All Danaher owned motion control businesses adopt common brand Danaher Motion

2001 – Elmo motors aquired by Danaher and integrated with EVS

1999 – Danaher Corporation aquires Atlas Copco Controls. Company name is changed to Inmotion Technologies

1989 – Atlas Copco aquires GME Systems. Company name changes to Atlas Copco Controls

1967 – GME Systems is founded, making customized electronics for various purposes

The attached PDF contains trouble shooting codes for the common system used on forklifts.  If you need remanufactured or new controllers, contact us for more information.  Or, if you know the part number already, enter it into our search bar on our home page.

Common Error Codes for Danaher

Error code 01:  No seat switch input.

Symptom: Lift truck does not move.

Possible causes and test procedures:

  • Seat switch malfunction.  Check to see that the seat switch operates properly.  Replace seat switch.
  • Check wiring to the seat switch and from the seat switch to the master controller.

Error code 02: The forward switch is closed before the key or seat switch closes.

Symptom: Lift truck does not move.

Possible Causes and Test Procedures:

  • A directional switch is closed when the key switch is turned to the ON position. This violates the Static Return to Off (SRO) Startup Procedure, move the directional lever to the neutral position, and then select a direction.
  • A directional switch is failed closed or out of adjustment.

Error code 03: The reverse switch is closed before the key or seat switch closes.

Symptom: Lift truck does not move.

Possible Causes and Test Procedures:

  • A directional switch is closed when the key switch is turned to the ON position. This violates the Static Return to Off (SRO) Startup Procedure, move the directional lever to the neutral position, and then select a direction.
  • A directional switch is failed closed or out of adjustment.

Error code 04: Park brake applied while the key switch is in the ON position.

Symptom: Lift truck does not move.

Possible Causes and Test Procedures:

  • Park brake is applied. Truck will not operate with park brake applied. Release the park break.
  • Park brake switch is out of adjustment or is shorted.

Error code 05: Start switch fails to close.

Symptom: Lift truck does not move.

Possible Causes and Test Procedures:

  • Malfunction of start switch circuit. Check for open circuit or loose connections in wiring from key switch to start switch and from P16 to start switch.
  • Malfunction of start switch. Check start switch for correct operation and output.

Error code 06: Accelerator depressed, no direction selected.

Symptom: Lift truck does not move.

Possible Causes and Test Procedures:

  • Accelerator pedal is depressed before closing a direction switch. Status code will disappear when directional switch is closed or when accelerator pedal is released.
  • Malfunction of directional switch. Check forward or reverse switch to make sure there is continuity when direction is selected.
  • Open circuit between directional switch and battery.
Danaher controller (click image to view)

Post by Intella Liftparts

Donaldson Pre-cleaners from Intella!

Topspin HD Precleaners provide a useful and practical solution to help prevent the tough conditions that our machines can go through. There are eight different sizes that can be purchased to help fit the size of your machine. There are multiple pros for having a Donaldson Top Spin HD Precleaner: cheaper operating cost; less maintenance downtime; your engines can breathe easier; far less air filters needed.

Topspin HD Precleaners are most-valuable when used in clean demanding environment. These environments include: construction; gas; oil; mining. Normal precleaners won’t withstand the beating that these environments give; however, Donaldson’s TopSpin HD Precleaner was built to withstand these conditions. With that being said, the TopSpin HD Precleaner may be the last precleaner that you’ll ever have to buy!

One of the best features that Donaldson’s Topspin HD Precleaner provides is that it doesn’t require you to empty a bowl. Its design allows means that particles will get removed automatically without any attention from you. All you have to do is set it up and let it clean!

Intella Liftparts Inc offers the 8 different variants of this product. The difference between these variants are the size. The larger machine you have, the larger pre-cleaner you’ll need. The following product numbers have links to our store website (the higher the number, the bigger the size): H002850; H002851; H002852; H002853; H002854; H002855; H002856; H002857.

If you currently have a Donaldson Full-View, Donaldson Topspin Precleaner, Fleetguard, Centri, Enginaire, Sy-Klone, Turbo II, or Turbo III precleaner, then you can easily upgrade to a Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner. 

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002850 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-20; Enginaire 200;  AP8408; AP3000; 9000R; Turbo III 15; H001823; H002434.

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002851 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-25; Enginaire 255; AP3000; H001251; H002436.

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002852 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-30; Enginaire 330; AP3000; Turbo II 24; Turbo III 50; H001249; H002437.

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002853 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-40; Enginaire 440S; AP8403; AP4500; 9001R; Turbo II 24; Turbo III 50; H000858; H002394.

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002854 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-50; Enginaire 550; AP8404; AP5000; 9002; 9002R; Turbo II 46; H002043; H002433

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002855 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-60; Enginaire 660; Turbo II 68; Turbo III 500; H002223; H002438.

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002856 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-70; Enginaire 770L; AP8405; 9003; Turbo II 68; Turbo III 500; H002224; H002439.

The following models can easily upgrade to a H002856 Donaldson Topspin HD Precleaner: EX-80; Enginaire 880; Turbo II 68; Turbo III 500.

More info can be found here or on this PDF.

Post by Intella Liftparts

How Much Does Your Scissor Lift Weigh?

“How much does my scissor lift weigh?” Well that question completely depends on your model of scissor lift. “Why does this matter?” The main reason why the operating weight is a vital thing to know is for transportation. The operating weight is how much your scissor lift actually weighs, including the battery and accessories within your machine. 

Below includes a large list of scissor lifts and their respective manufacturers. Right below this are common scissor lifts made by common manufacturers. These manufacturers are: JLG; Genie; Skyjack.

JLG 1930es Scissor Lift

Q: How much does my JLG 1930es scissor lift weigh?

A: 2,710 lbs; 1,229.24 kg.

Q: How much does my JLG 3246ES scissor lift weigh?

A: 4,975 lbs; 2,256.62 kg.

Q: How much does my Genie GS1930 scissor lift weigh?

A: 3,302 lbs; 1,498 kg.

Q: How much does my Genie GS3246 scissor lift weigh?

A: 6,200 lbs; 2,812 kg.

Q: How much does my SkyJack SJIII 3219 scissor lift weigh?

A: 2,579.5 lbs; 1,170.04 kg.

Q: How much does my SkyJack SJIII 4632 scissor lift weigh?

A: 5,075.1 lbs; 2,302 kg.

Download a larger list here:

Post by Intella Liftparts

How Much Does Your Articulating Boom Lift Weigh?

What’s the weight of your articulating boom lift? Articulating boom lifts are very useful for getting to high places in a quiet and smooth manner. The operating weight is key to know as it determines what angles are feasible and how much weight can be put onto the platform. Operating weight measures how much the machinery actually weighs. This information is useful for, as said above, how high you can go with your articulating boom lift and what angles you can use. It also is useful for transportation and what kind of vehicle is needed to transport one. 

Below is a list of manufacturers and their boom lifts. Common articulating boom lifts made by these manufacturers and their respective weight are listed below. The manufacturers listed below are the following: Genie; JLG.

Genie S60 Boom Lift

Q: How much does my Genie S60 boom lift weigh?

A: 20,690 lbs; 9385 kg.

Q: How much does my Genie S85 boom lift weigh?

A: 38,000 lbs; 17,236 kg.

Q: How much does my JLG 600AJ boom lift weigh?

A: 22,740 lbs; 10,314.69 kg.

Q: How much does my JLG 660SJ boom lift weigh?

A: 25,341 lbs; 11,494.48 kg.

Q: How much does my JLG 800AJ boom lift weigh?

A: 34,130 lbs; 15,481.11 kg.

Download a larger list here:

Post by Intella Liftparts

How much does your telehandler weigh?

What’s the weight of your telehandler? This is a question that can be quite difficult to figure out, yet a vital one to know. The weight of your telehandler has a direct relationship with its respective lifting capacity. The higher the weight of your telehandler, the more you can lift. With that being said, the angle of which the boom of the telehandler is situated at can also affect the lift capacity. The lower the degree of your boom, the less you can lift. For example, if the boom is completely parallel with the ground, your telehandler can lift as little as 400lbs (180kg). If the angle of the boom is 60°, your telehandler could lift potentially 10,000lbs (4535kg), yet again, the lift capacity depends on the operation weight of your telehandler. 

Below is a list a list of operational weights for telehandlers. This list will include telehandlers that are produced by big manufacturers. These brands include: Genie; Cat; JLG; Skytrak; JCB. Some common telehandlers and their operational weights are listed below.

Genie GTH-1056

Q: How much does a Genie GTH-1056 telehandler weigh?

A: 30,000 lbs; 13,608 kg.

Q: How much does a Genie GTH-5519 telehandler weigh?

A: 10,000 lbs; 4,536 kg.

Q: How much does a Cat TL1055 telehandler weigh?

A: 34,700 lbs; 15,739.66 kg.

Q: How much does a Cat TL943 telehandler weigh?

A: 26,525 lbs; 12032 kg.

Q: How much does a JLG G10-55A telehandler weigh?

A: 34,400 lbs; 15603.58 kg.

Q: How much does a JLG 1255 telehandler weigh?

A: 33,960 lbs; 15,404 kg.

Q: How much does a Skytrak 10054 telehandler weigh?

A: 28,200 lbs; 12,791.3 kg.

Q: How much does a JCB 540-170 telehandler weigh?

A: 8,818.5 lbs; 4,000 kg.

Q: How much does a JCB 520-50 telehandler weigh?

A: 9,700 lbs; 4,400 kg.

Q: How much does a JCB 531-70 telehandler weigh?

A: 15,215 lbs; 6,901.41 kg.

Download a larger list here:

Post by Intella Liftparts

ZF off-highway transmission parts

ZF transmissions can be found in a variety of brands of equipment including Hyster, Kalmar, JLG, SkyTrak, Gehl, Hyundai, and many others. Need ZF parts? You’ve come to the right place. ZF transmissions are made in Germany and since we’re part of a European company, we can get your ZF parts quick. We offer 2 and 3 day transit time on ZF parts direct from Europe at super competitive prices.

It can be confusing when you hear the ZF name for the first time. In the United States, we pronounce Z like “zee” so most Americans would say ZF like “Zee Eff”. In Canada and the UK, it’s pronounced “Zed eff”. We’ve even seen ZF spelled differently too! We’ve received emails where customers ask for “Zeteff” parts, Zed-f transmission parts, Zedeff transmissions, and even others.

Where do I find ZF serial number tag?

ZF serial number tags are on the side of the ZF transmission.  They’re typically fairly easy to find.  The older your equipment is, the more likely the tag may be damaged.  ZF refers to this tag as the “model identification plate”.  It contains all the information required to order spare parts for the ZF transmission.

ZF data tag ZF serial number plate

What do ZF parts manuals look like?

ZF data tag ZF serial number plate
Typical ZF parts manual page

What ZF transmissions are used in forklifts and aerial lifts?


JLG/Skytrak have used the 4 WG 98 model from ZF


Hyster/Yale have used a variety of different ZF models.  Hyster/Yale formerly used Dana/Clark transmissions but switched to ZF in recent years.  Models include 3 WG 201 as well as WG 211, WG161, and others.


Hyundai Forklifts have used 3 WG 94 ZF models and others.


Need more help?  Need to order parts?  Intella Liftparts can help.  With the help of our parent company located in The Netherlands, we have fast shipping of off-highway ZF transmission parts direct from Europe.  Often we can offer quicker turnaround time than other suppliers in the United States!  Search for ZF off-highway parts here

Graziano gearbox

ZF off Highway Transmission

Post by Intella Liftparts

Ignition keypads for forklifts, construction equipment, and golf carts

It’s a fairly common problem: you want to make sure only authorized personnel operate your equipment.

Has this ever happened to you?

  • you park your forklift in one place, walk away, just to come back later and find the forklift missing. Where’d it go? Who’s using it?
1039100 Intella forklift keypad

Intella’s got the solution for you. Our 1039100 ignition keypad ensures only authorized personnel will operate your equipment.

The unit can be progammed for up to 99 users. Once you’ve installed the unit, each driver will have his or her unique code. The code will be required before the vehicle or equipment can be operated. All user codes can be reprogrammed and unused user numbers can be temporarily disabled for additional security.

Check out these additional features:

Last User Identification – Can identify to the supervisor the user number of the last user of a vehicle.

Automatic Shut-0ff – Detects vehicle activity. If the vehicle has been inactive beyond a specifìed period of time, the switch will deactivate securing the vehicle. This feature is optional and can be activated or deactivated as desired.

Maintenance Alert – Can accumulate vehicle usage time and provide audible and visible signals indicating when vehicle maintenance is due. After maintenance is performed, the cycle can be reset as desired. This feature is optional and can be activated or deactivated by supervisor.

Accumulated Time – Can accumulate total vehicle usage time. This accumulated time can be accessed through the Supervisor Code.

The supervisor’s access code can be changed using the factory progammed reset code.

Installation only requires 4-5 wires to connect. Click here to order.

Post by Intella Liftparts